The Neutron & The Nucleus
In the FOS model series [aka Fidler-Morton Atomic Theory] , neutron characteristics & structure are derived in essence from an increased degree in the intensity of the behaviour and rate of conduction of electrons, as compared to their structural behaviour in the formation of the electronic shells of an atom. This is not a new idea, but it is one that was dismissed as a possibility some 72* years ago. The idea proved to be a very short lived part of a theory, which is still an important theory of beta radioactivity, by Enrico Fermi. This idea of electrons being the quanta responsible for keeping protons and neutrons together to form nuclei was dismissed partially on the experimental evidence that if a gas of nucleons was bombarded by a stream of electrons (and neutrinos) "little interaction takes place". "Because of the wave structure of the electron, it can be shown that an electron inside a nucleus would have to move about with so much kinetic energy that it could not be held there by known forces. Since the nucleus is very tiny, the position of the electron inside the nucleus would be so accurately known that its momentum would, according to the uncertainty principle, be extremely large and hence its kinetic energy would be very large." Also supporting this conclusion was the fact that the electron wavelength was greater than the diameter of the nucleus. So many have stated;- "How could an electron even fit within the confines of a nucleus." I do not doubt either the source nor the results of the experiment, but I do disagree with the overall conclusions of the experimenters and those who agree with them. The basis of my argument is this;- Normally ordinary electrons cannot react with nucleons or enter a nucleus of an atom, but an electron can come out of a nucleus in the form of beta-rays. So they are within nuclei, and no one can dispute this without denying modern nuclear physics, but they are not in their normal form (conduction strength & structure).
For some time now we have known that in a nucleus that is too proton rich (or neutron deficient) an "ordinary" electron can be drawn into the nucleus of an atom from the "K" shell - the first orbital. This form of radioactivity, as it is known from the release of energy from this process, is called Orbital Electron Capture. And this type of radioactivity occurs in quite a few isotopes of the elements. So ordinary electrons are known to enter the nucleus under the correct conditions. The experiment to force electrons artificially into the nucleus of an atom failed for two reasons;- one, because they used electrons who inhabit normal space and thus not electrons who are suited to being conducted in regions of a far greater FOS density nature. Which, if they were, would already possess the structural changes to be conducted within such a more dense FOS gradient. Given enough time around the proper nucleus one of their electrons might have entered into a nucleus. Secondly, but more importantly, around the nucleus there also exists a wake dissipation region from the nuclear electrons.
Even an electron that has been excited by the use of a cyclotron and directed towards nuclei will normally encounter about these groups of nucleons a layer of fabric, which will only be able to conduct these electrons by ordinary means (energies). These electrons would find themselves too weak to overcome the nuclear electron's wake barrier and therefore unable to enter such a nucleus. The only way for an electron to take up residence within the nucleus would be for the nucleus to be neutron deficient. So that it's wake dissipation region would be weaker, and then for the electron to have more time about the nucleus to change to a form that would allow it to become part of the nucleus. Consider the time given to the electron already in the "K" shell in ordinary Orbital Electron Capture. [Could look up the half life of such an atom.]
There is an excited state that will readily react with a nucleon and particularly with nuclei. Because it has already undergone the structural change of greater conductibility, and FOS displacement, by having just come from the interior of a nuclear FOS gradient. It is called a pion (negative) - short form for pi-meson. It is not considered an excited state of an electron, but another particle that was once considered a meson, is now only considered an excited electron.
[download the draft of the book to read more]
|Note that after further research
there is only some minor evidence to support the antiproton model in
of the book, and ironically contradictory information about the
anti-protons exist in sources such as Wikipedia on anti-protons. Such
information like that the life time of antiprotons should be the same
as that of protons, but experiment and observation places their life
spans in terms hours for stationary antiprotons according to some labs
and up to thousands of years for those kept in motion.
[From the Fermi lab: 50,000 years for p → μ− + X and 300,000 years for p → e− + γ]. Additional contradictory information that exists is the particle equations for the decay of the antiproton states that the antiproton can decay into an electron and gamma ray, but this does not account for the mass correctly.
|Note that the pdf version of the
draft for the book has had the diagrams, sketches and pictures removed.
The references to them still exist, and so do notes to the author about
possible errors, missing information, and other general editing
Click on this link Draft of the Book to download a copy of the draft of the book.
|The purpose of this series of
pages introducing "The Dynamic Nature of
the Fabric of Space" is not only to find a publisher to turn this draft
[first posted on the internet on December 1, 2008]
into a book, but it is also to earn enough money to pay off my student
loans, and hopefully raise enough money to initiate the Farm Robot
Project. With any luck, and marketing, I will also be able to fund
robotic under water camera platform and observation posts. These would
be used to both capture images of marine life, and also provide
biologists with another tool to study life in the ocean. Along with
this research, hopefully there will be a few patent spin-offs to
generate additional income to keep the research and projects going.
Presently I'm unable to effectively finance my own projects due to my
student debt to which I'm enslaved to my student loan payments.
Along with finding a publisher I'd like to put out the word to mathematicians, physicists, or at least someone better at calculus & differential equations than me, that I have some ideas on the mathematics for the Fabric of Space atomic model. And that ideally I'd like to collaborate on some of the mathematics while completing the book. This would be a great opportunity for someone to start off their career, as the implications for both chemistry and physics are enormous.
Monthly advertising space, see the following link to the Advertising Sample Page, is available. With preference for repeat customers, and additional spots going to the best, but not necessarily, the highest bidder. The final choice being made at the discretion of Terrance Fidler. Preferred method of payments are bank drafts, e-payments via e-mail address, money orders.